Lecture 17: Structural Social Stratification 2

Lecture 17: Structural  Social Stratification 2

Okay guys this is the second part of The social stratification section 4 Structural violence We just talked about Patriarchy So economic power The there’s this term in sociology and economics called the feminization of poverty Approximately two-thirds of adults To live within the poverty range are female There’s also terms such as pink-collar ghetto This is Play so although women have made Games as far as getting into traditional email to find jobs Majority are still employed in Traditional female jobs that are lower pay So This is kind of a play on the blue collar white collar Pink color Pay differentials are less than at any other time in us history So yes the wage gap is smaller today than it was Say a hundred years ago But This is Partly in result of Males working class Downward mobility as opposed to an increase in income for women So the male portion of the working class is going down To a lower amount so instead of the women going up to meet them in the manner coming down To meet the women So am i Workers between 35 Andover women earn between 76 and 81% of what their milk Counterparts did in 2014 this is where you get the idea of Have the 76 cents per dollar For those under age 35 the earnings differences between women and men Were smaller with women earning about 90 cents per dollar For what men were making So here is some stuff from the census bureau Median income male vs female income gaps This is only up to 2010 This is from 2016 You can see women with advanced degrees doesn’t necessarily mean that you’re going to make as much as The men do a woman with an advanced degree pasta bachelor so a masters or otherwise Is only making about as much as a man with a bachelor’s degree Religion How does this relate with Gender So customs beliefs laws that discriminate against women are Reinforced and perpetuated by religion of the area in all western Traditions. ismail Even though it’s never explicitly Said that the pronoun he I was kind of given if you look as far as christianity the story of Adam and eve you know what was eve’s position relative to adam and then who Rules as religious organizations When does christianity and islam they stress the need for women to be subservient to men There’s some cultures that were Going to look at where women are cast out During their menstration. because it’s considered unclean there’s a practice of Promise rings were fathers give their daughters a promise ring As a way of showing that She’s going to Control her sexuality Until her father can give her to her husband That’s a male control over a female Sexual body There’s no equal rights amendment the united states is one of the few nations Not to have an equal rights amendment Historically Violent crimes against women were treated less seriously less important we’ve talked about Not that i’m in the section on interpersonal violence the history of Women being seen as property Allowed as the the husband to physically Finish the wife for any indiscretions that he saw fit This all respect reflects the males power Are spanx the question is this still the case I guess it depends on what you’re looking at and how closely you’re willing to look at it Rape laws that’s one of the few crimes where the victim is Suspect just as much as the offender is Anyone who’s paying attention to the news here recently There’s generally questions on you know what was she wearing what was she doing Why was she long was she drinking Was she flirting with him There’s really no other crime where that happens if so Someone is Physically assaulted on their way home And beat up very badly you know no one says okay while Were you investigating the fight were you arguing with the person where you Did you tell them no So these kinds of questions aren’t asked of other crimes and if they were people would think it was a Absurd And as we said before the reason rape laws were even inactive Was because it was considered an act of theft against the husband someone had stole Stolen his wife who was his property Husbands are still exempt from prosecution in marital rape cases in several states When they are prosecuted they’re treated as Less culpable than incidence of stranger Rape or even acquaintances As we’ve already hinted on in the previous section Political power women have more at the local level than the national But when we look at the dominant Positions men still control the weapons of war Marriage and family life I know there’s An uptick in women not taking their husband’s name But symbolically it’s something that’s been done But what does that imply The children often also take on the name of the father If And it has been a wife and i’m married And there’s a child for generally the child is given the father’s last name Again another symbolic gesture There are Authority structures in the home that are tied to the role of the breadwinner As an act of socialization Major purchases or investment decisions are decided primarily by the mail For those of you who don’t know or have never had this experience If Even if you don’t need the work done if you just want to call and get an estimate on something You know use a friend’s address or your parents address or someone’s address that has a home Call a couple of companies and see about getting an estimate on some House work to be done whether it’s getting drywall done or getting a new roof or something like that Ladies Call first Give it a week See if you get called back see what the estimate is Guys do the same thing i guarantee you’re going to get called back a lot faster if at all We had the experience A couple of years ago we bought a new home and was getting a fence put up for For the dogs And called And installing company that worked for one of the big box stores and the Gentleman I called ask for the estimate Gave both my name and my husband’s name as someone that they could speak to you if they could Call back Will they call back and i answer the phone and they immediately asked to speak to my husband Lighten up inside i got this Talk to them about it and they’re like oh you know if you want to talk it over with your husband around like no actually i’m the one paying the bills so yep that’s And then Even when they came to do the work They generally asked for my husband As the person to sign off that the work was complete and that it was to our satisfaction and I had a nice chat with the gentleman that own the company About the expectation that I was the one writing the check so if i didn’t sign off on it it didn’t matter what my husband thought He apologized That right there is generally that’s how it happens And there is this expectation that These are the man’s role He’s the one that controls the purse strings and such housework responsibilities And the division of household chores Generally favored the mail as far as not having to do as much Males define their position as people that are just helping out Which is funny but In other studies depending on what you look at there’s also evidence that Women whose husbands help with a Larger chunk of the household chores are often happier in their relationships And men in those positions Bay Divide the household chores more equally statistically also Have sex more often And more frequently than those who don’t so if anybody wants to take that little Should be at home and share it with their spouse feel free I found it interesting Infanticide this is the killing of children Especially female children is still problematic in many countries those would have Have dowry laws And those where the Land and property is only transferred to two male children female children Turn are not desired So they’re seymour’s a liability Or when china have there Limit on how many children a couple can have The vast majority that work heat were kept where male now weaves Cine Tremendous surge in People not having children people not getting married because there’s just not enough women for all of the men who Door now I’m over the age of 18 In china Spousal abuse is still not beauty as serious as other types of violence So how does this relate to stratification and life chances Galtung was one of the first to use the term structural violence in his writings he did Peace studies he defined as the violence that is built into the structure of the society And manifests itself in the differences In life chances He stated that in a society where life expectancy is twice as high in the upper as a It is in the lower classes Violence is exercised even if there are no concrete actors One can point to directly attacking others As when one person kills another So access to the means of being healthy safe Having the means to develop one’s human potential require money And life chances are the chances in Dan for Life Commodification of necessities this is part of capitalism This is why we were The problem in the transition to a capitalist society is getting people to work Bears taxes And then there’s the commodification of necessities and needs that are created by the markets The more income and wealth that you have the greater your access 2 Chances for life this is living in a safe environment Having a pollution-free Area adequate housing safe neighborhoods Access to a good education Healthcare Access to enough income to maintain a healthy life And resources and general access to clean water access to healthy food We know that in the vast majority of the forms of violence that we’ve talked about the less Income you possess relative to others in your society the higher your rates of victimization In general we know that the more inequality there isn’t a society the more Of the various types of violence That we’ve discussed our But Can the structures of inequality themselves be violent in the consequences That’s something that we’re going to pick up in the next lectures Something to think about We’re going to talk specifically about How the ranking of positions Are violent in and of themselves I’m here are Some Life expectancy Statistics If you look at This is men vs women life expectancy by age 50 The bottom 10% vs the top 10% This is between 4 and 10 years for women For men it’s 5 to 12 So If you look at countries You can see All of these dots the u.s. is down in this lower right-hand corner We have lower life expectancy because we have higher income How many holiday apc japan they have low in it Rates of income inequality and their life expectancy is Everyone else in the same with sweden So life expectancy at birth This is in the united states between 1970 and 2013 By race and gender Obviously not all races are shown here but this kind of gives a snapshot of White versus minority And black being the Most disenfranchised of the minorities in the united states The harvard university school of public health initiative for global health so In 2000 data from 2001 they divided the Us population into clusters based on race location population density in Income and homicide rates They found The life expectancy for asians was 84.9 years Low income rural white 79 middle americans 77 Low-income whites in appalachia in mississippi with 75 Black and middle america or black middle america was 72.9 Western native american 72 Southern rural low-income black 71 High-risk urban black 71 Average income is also listed here you can see that it goes from 21 154 asians 20464 middle Income why it’s all the way down to 1488 4 High-risk urban black The greatest disparity was asian american women living in new jersey They enjoyed the greatest life expectancy in the entire country at 91 years American indians in south dakota have the worst at 58 The primary cause of this disparity they found was between Are between the racial and geographic groups was Early death and chronic disease and injury So what are other factors that Read into These life chances and lower life expectancy obesity and income Researchers led by New york university’s department of nutrition food studies public health Food studies and public health critically reviewed 90 studies And they found that neighborhoods with Decreased economic and social resources have higher rates of obesity They also found the residents in low-income urban areas are more likely to report greater name Neighborhood barriers Such as limited opportunity to walk Or have physical activity reduced access to stores that sell healthy foods They don’t have as many large supermarkets These are called food deserts where Because of the area These larger stores that have Healthy foods produce is and stuff like that that are affordable Are not found in these areas Some of these people have to travel 30 minutes To get to Addison grocery store If you don’t have the income to spend on the gas or Are the public transit to get there or the time because you’re working so much You’re going to end up eating The lower-quality lower nutritional content foods that are going to lead to higher rates of Obesity Mental health Those with higher incomes are much more likely than those with lower incomes to report Excellent mental health and this relationship persists even when other various Labels are controlled such as education gender marital status cetera The result of self-report gallup poll Those that Braided their mental health as excellent were more likely to have higher incomes be white female Those who are college-educated and those who are younger Sophie think about this As far as Hierarchy If we’re looking at higher key we’re looking at white men Score higher incomes Report that they have A better Mental health status Which should not be surprising So Maternal infant and child health here is a chart from 2015 On infant mortality rates by race and ethnicity of the mom As you can see White non hispanics and asians relatively low hispanics a little bit higher American indian alaska natives About twice what it is or asian and non-hispanic whites Non-hispanic blacks though this is almost 3 * The number of infant deaths as for asian or white non hispanics Low birth weight for infants is twice as high for african americans compared And this is a newborn’s rates of fetal alcohol syndrome Is disproportionately higher for african-americans native americans and native alaskans Cardiovascular disease as it relates to class an income Cardiovascular disease is responsible for more than 16 million deaths worldwide or about About 30% total global deaths Traditionally they’ve been considered a western disease or a quote-unquote Disease of influence of affluence and not really a public health concern for low income Populations However within upper-middle-income and higher-income countries Cardiovascular disease and their associated risk Factors are increasingly concentrated among the lower socioeconomic groups So Cardiovascular disease These are diseases associated with stress These are diseases associated with obesity These are Diseases associated with Poor diet lack of exercise Smoking All things that we are seeing more and lower income groups So can the position that you were born into have violent consequences Institutional actions differentiate between those in different positions How we socially interact with each other As a result of the positions we occupy And the amount of resources that we have to be safe when a crisis hits all of these things Things Relate to what were born into And how that affects our Or even our possibility of life at all If we look at Crisis recently we have hurricane michael going on right now Hurricane katrina was a really good example of A natural disaster A Already Low socio-economic area And The majority of the people killed where the lowest income Who didn’t have access to resources When the crisis happened So These have very real consequences whether or not you See the value in What we’re saying All right so that’s the end of this section we are going to pick it up On I believe I’ll post the next one shortly but We’ll talk more about Structural violence and systems of stratification and how it directly relates to These violent outcomes So as usual if you have questions You may post them to the discussion board or email me directly I’ll get those next lectures busted

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